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Type89
Type 89
Country of origin

Empire of Japan

Production began

1929

Weapon type

Machine Gun

Caliber

7.7x58SR Type 92

Action

gas-operated

Overall length

1069mm

Barrel length

443mm

Weight

28kg

Magazine/Cylinder capacity

90 rounds (45 round fan magazines)

Cyclic rate

1400rpm

Maximum effective range

250 to 350m


The Type 89 is a double barrel machine gun of Japanese origin.[1][2] The weapon is gas operated and fed from unusual overhead fan magazines. An example can be seen at the Satria Mandala Museum in Jakarta.[3]

In 1928, the Japanese army acquired a license to manufacture the British aircraft machine guns fixed Vickers class E and rolling Vickers class F. The first went into production in the arsenal of the army in Tokyo as a 89-Shiki (Type 89), and later production was organized on the arsenals of Kokura and Nagoya. All changes were limited only to the replacement of the cartridge from the English "0.303 British" on the domestic 7.7h58SR Type 92 From the production version of the turret, the Japanese army initially refused due to the fact that in the late 20s has been adopted coaxial machine gun turret design Kidzhiro Nambu Type 89 .

The history of this gun, often mistakenly called a modification of the British Vickers, is rooted in the years of the 1st World War, when in 1914, based on a French machine gun Hotchkiss Mle 1914 was developed by a private Japanese construction machine gun, known as Type 3 caliber 6.5 mm. Designer it was Colonel Kidzhiro Nambu.

From French prototypes Japanese machine gun Type 03 different controls fire, as well as details of barrel locking unit and other items. Type 03 machine gun used standard for the Japanese army of the period 6.5 mm caliber cartridges. In 1932 for the Japanese army had adopted a new rifle and machine gun cartridge 7.7x58SR Type 92 (92 from 2592, the date of the mythical founding of the Japanese Empire), designed to eventually replace is not fully satisfied by the army characteristics Insert 6.5mm.

Machine gun used vapor-automatic located under the barrel gas piston with a long stroke. Air-cooled barrel, has a massive fins and can not be quickly replaced in combat conditions. Shooting was conducted with an open shutter only automatic fire. The barrel is locked by a special vertical sliding wedge, located in the rear of the bolt. At arrival gate to the front position locking wedge is lowered by means of shaped grooves in the slide frame and lugs on its side surfaces are in the slots of the receiver. After the shot the motion of the gas piston and bolt wedge rises, opening the shutter. Stock is made of hard-cassette tapes (like the French Hotchkiss machine gun) with a capacity of 30 rounds or semi-rigid strips consisting of pivotally interconnected rigid links capacity of 3 rounds each (total 83 level, the total capacity of 249 rounds). Submission √ tape from left to right. The design of the gun was a special nipple that provides lubrication cartridges in the tape before it is fed into the barrel, guaranteeing a reliable extraction in pollution weapons, but it increased the complexity and difficult to use.

The first attempt to adapt a machine gun as a defensive weapons nascent Japanese aviation refers to March 1918, when he was tested at the airbase Kagamigahara and next month has become the standard defensive weapons on Japanese planes, yet foreign production. However, a high enough rate of fire of a machine gun and a weak cartridge caliber 6.5 mm Type 3 machine gun did not too effective weapon for aviation. Beginning in 1922, Japan began experimenting to find solutions to increase the efficiency of these weapons. First of all, it was decided to abandon the weak cartridge Arisaka 6.5x50SR, taking as a base the English 0.303 British, supplied to Japan with Lewis and Vickers machine guns. Later, the British patron, who had a few archaic flange rim, not very convenient for automatic firing, has been redesigned to 7.7x58 cartridge type 89 and type 92 7.7x58SR, but it will be more in the future.

Work to improve the practical rate of gun type 3 was conducted Kidzhiro Nambu on his firm firm "Chu: ou Ko: gyou KK" in the summer of 1925. Assuming that the aircraft will be used with a machine gun turret installations aircraft in the English style "Ring Skarffa" Nambu was not involved too rigid limits on mass characteristics of the weapon. Having no technical possibility to hike rate infantry machine gun, he followed the path of merging two independent machine gun in a single structure. Two Smoking Barrels, two receiver, two shutter ramy┘ But vapor mechanics was tied to a common cylinder, which was located between the trunks. Vent tube each of the cylinder barrels displayed mirror. On the left of the barrel to the right, from the right, respectively - to the left. The entire structure is mounted on a bent steel pipe, is a pillar. Two bolt tight to each other and were fitted with wooden handles with trigger thumb. To support frame fastened metal axillary focus.

The most interesting was a machine gun store. Closely spaced bolt was not allowed to use any tape or clips, or the disc magazine. Kidzhiro Nambu took the original design of the power base of his machine gun Type 11, fit the standard 5-round rifle cages. Only instead of a box on the machine gun, holds 6 clips, applied sectored shop where along the arc inserted 9 clips of five rounds. Two such shop installed on each of the mirror barrel boxes. Thus, the total ammunition gun was 90 rounds of 45 pieces per barrel. Charging clips made from the top through a spring-loaded magazine cover, and could be made at any time in between shooting. As the consumption of each subsequent holder of it flew out of the store to the side.

Such a construction supply ammunition was very controversial for Type 11 light machine gun, as has often led to pollution and tight lid hopper injury, and all the flaws infantry machine gun and moved automatically to the aircraft version.

Constructive solution to use clips in aircraft machine gun was quite unexpected, because the used machine gun cartridges Type 89 and Type 92 have never been used in military rifles. And if not a good design 6.5-mm machine gun Type 11 with rifle clips somehow justified by the unification of the ammunition in the battle, the air gun for this decision was absolutely pointless. The only explanation was that the development of new 7.7-mm ammunition for the army, apparently planned early 7.7-mm cartridges Type 89 and Type 92 is still used in rifles too, but until 1939 the Japanese infantrymen used old 6.5-mm cartridges Arisakovskimi . It was only towards the end of the 30's went into service a new wafer rifle cartridge 7.7h58 "Arisaka" Type 99, which, however, never used in aviapulemetah.

Nevertheless, developed Nambu design coaxial machine gun loved the military. With a mass of 28 kg the rate of fire of 1400 rounds / min. In 1929, the gun was officially adopted by the Army Aviation as a standard defensive weapons for multi-aircraft and received the designation "89-Shiki Tokubetsu" or "Type 89 Special", the prefix "Special" probably arose in connection with the adoption of service in the same year, the offensive synchronous machine gun Type 89 √ copies of the English license Vickers. Thus, in order to distinguish two very different caliber machine gun one with the same name synchronous Japanese Vickers was designated Type 89 Model 2 and √ turret Nambu Type 89 special. Probably walking around to this day the view that turret Type 89 is a deep modification Vickers grows because of the "almost identical" refer to two different designs. Oddly enough, but later the traditional notation "Those" adopted for the turret guns caliber rifle "type 89 special" and has not received.

Mechanics gun "type 89 special" generally repeated borrowed from the old Hotchkiss, and implemented in machine guns Type 3 and Type 11, but differed in that the shots were fired from a closed bolt, slightly increased the rate of technical gun. Charging the gun carried the same for both mechanisms handle √ stamped metal bracket located on top of the gate frame. Characteristic of the family Hotchkiss guns Nambu ribbed barrel, no need for air version was cleaned.

OverviewEdit

Gun "type 89 special" was produced in large series from 1930 on army arsenals in Tokyo, Nagoya and Kokura. In the prewar years, these coaxial machine gun armed army all Japanese aircraft had tail firing points. The machine gun was mounted on a standard open circular turret type "Ring Skarffa." By the end of the 30s, when this kind of defensive installation became obsolete identify and most obvious drawback of this gun √ exorbitant mass of 28 kg √ corresponded rather large-caliber weapons and a decent size, not allowed to use the machine gun from the closed pivot installations of new aircraft and mechanized towers of new bombers. By the beginning of the 2nd World War machine gun Type 89 began to fade with the turrets of new Japanese bombers.

At its base was developed by a single version of the portable machine gun turret Te 4 √ more lightweight and compact. Vapor tube gun Te 4 was located on the right side parallel to the barrel. The machine gun was equipped with a wooden pistol grip with a wide strap under the whole palm hand and the trigger instead of trigger. Also, instead of the metal stop underarm appeared wooden shoulder, which is sometimes replaced by a standard rifle wooden butt. Finally, Kidzhiro Nambu got rid of my nasty know-how of the sector √ shop for rifle clips. Those gun ammunition supply-4 was carried out of the more familiar and reliable disk store capacity of 69 rounds, unified with the earlier gun Te 1.

ReferencesEdit

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