The Mannlicher M1895, more commonly known as the Mannlicher M95, is an Austro-Hungarian bolt-action rifle.
Originally adopted by the Austro-Hungarian Army all throughout World War I, the M95 was retained post-war by both the Austrian and Hungarian armies. Bulgaria was also a rather prominent user of the rifle, and used it starting from 1903 in large numbers; after Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, many of the Austro-Hungarian rifles were given to other Balkan states as war reparations. Some of these rifles also saw use in World War II, mainly by second line, reservist and partisan in some European countries such as Romania and Italy, and Germany to a lesser extent. All throughout its service life, the M95 was nicknamed the Ruck-Zu(rü)ck (which is German slang for "back and forth", which is attributed to its bolt action) by the Austrians, and the Ta-Pum by the Italians; the Italians even wrote a song about the M95 during World War I.
The M95 was designed by Ferdinand Mannlicher in 1895. It is unusual for having a straight-pull bolt action, which increased the M95's rate of fire greatly when compared to conventional turnbolt designs. Due to the weapon's revolutionary straight-pull bolt, it is renowned for having a very high rate of fire, along with having good reliability and having excellent build quality. However, this high rate of fire came at a cost; in order to achieve the maximum theoretical possible rate of fire of the M95, decent care and maintenance had to be performed frequently on the M95, mainly due to an extractor that can break fairly easily due to there being a lack of primary extraction on the firearm.
The M95 was originally chambered for 8×50mmR Mannlicher, though most, if not almost all M95s were rechambered and rebarreled to accept the more powerful 8×56mmR spitzer cartridge. The weapon has a five-round internal magazine fed by five-round en bloc clips. The clip is ejected from the bottom of the weapon after the last round is chambered.
- M95 Gewehr
The main variant that was used mainly by the Austro-Hungarian military.
- M95 Stutzen
Shorter variant of the M95 used by special forces.
- M95 Carabiner
Carbine variant of the M95 that replaced the Mannlicher M1890 rifle.
- Sniper rifle
Version of the standard rifle fitted with a scope offset to the left.
Variant of the normal rifle chambered for 8×56mmR. Differentiated from normal M95s by an S stamped on top of the chamber. Most were cut down to Stutzen length.
- 31.M or M95/31
Hungarian conversion of the original rifle chambered for 8×56mmR. Differentiated from normal M95s by an H stamped on top of the chamber, metric ladder sights and a front sight protector. These were not used for very long and were quickly replaced by the newer 35M rifles.
- M95M or M95/24
Yugoslav conversion of the rifle by Kragujevac Arsenal. Differentiated from normal M95s through the use of M24 Mauser barrels and sights, similar handguards and are fed by 5-round stripper clips as opposed to en bloc clips.