Goryainov 1936
Country of origin


Year(s) designed





Inertia Locked

Used by

Soviet Union

The Goryainov 1936 was a semi automatic rifle of russian origin.

While working in TsKIB SOO I had a chance to hear from Yu Platonov - Head of the theoretical division and one of the veterans organizations - such a story. Somewhere in the mid-1990s, IY Stechkin conducting tests Silent revolver OTs-38, collided with an unusual effect. After another shot suddenly I discovered that the trigger of a revolver jumped back and stood cocked! About randomness is not out of the question - the effect is repeated regularly and interfere with debugging weapons. In fact, OC-38, like any other classic revolver has no razobschitelnogo mechanism and the trigger is to put the hammer cocked can not. But, apparently, after a shot from concussions trigger more turned toward the starting position and the trigger sear caught. There is nothing unusual in this phenomenon is not - a similar effect is used to trigger the so-called "I whispered breakdown." An unusual fact was a strong rebound hammer - because no mechanisms, cocking it without an arrow in the OC-38 is not. At a time when Igor Y. thinking how to deal with the problem, he was approached by Yu Platonov and unwittingly became involved in her decision. Progress has been thinking about the next gunsmiths. The strength, throwing the hammer back, could only affect his striker. But where does it come from?

Опытные винтовки Горяинова и Мамонтова (СССР. 1936 год)

Perhaps this is a cap holder, moving back under the pressure of powder gases during firing, pushing the striker? Similar schemes of automation are well known (eg, the system Roth). But they are usually used in special cartridges with increased stroke the capsule in the nest. A shift in conventional cartridges capsule is very small - in 7.62-mm rifle cartridge 0,25-0,38 mm. The cartridge SP-4 used in the revolver OTs-38, the shift of the capsule even less because it has enhanced fixation in the nest, and it is not enough to overcome the pressure of the mainspring. The only explanation was that the effect of that is shifting the whole entire sleeve. After a gap that allows the sleeve to "surrender" between her back and the bottom frame revolver there - is needed for the free rotation of the drum. Additional experiments confirmed the validity of this assumption. IY Stechkin had to enter into the design of OTS 38 protivootskoka trigger mechanism. The effect described above can not cause the arms designer desires to use it as an energy source for actuating the moving parts of weapons, i.e. Automation Engine. It looks so tempting engine, it can dramatically simplify the design of weapons, reduce the size and weight reduction. Does anyone had not occurred to me so obvious and elegant solution? Further study showed theme - came, and again ...

The collection of weapons technical office TsKIB SOO I had a chance to see experimental autoloading rifles Goryainova design and construction Mamontov (two versions) in which there were no outward signs of the engine automatic - no venting device or rolling barrel they had not. So, intrigued by the story of Yu Platonov, I again went to tehkabinet and became a "torment" of these rifles - something tells me that without the "effect of the OC-38," there has not been. And just - rifles inspection showed that they worked due to automatic shift sleeve in the chamber during firing.

Both rifles are "breadboard" samples, ie, experimental platform designed to explore the possibilities of a new principle of automation. Rifle Goryainova dated 1936 year. I managed to find out some information about the designer of this rifle. Makar F. Goryainov in 1926 graduated from the Leningrad Infantry School, was held a number of positions from platoon commander to battalion commander. After graduating from the Military Technical Academy im.F. Dzerzhinsky served in the Main Directorate of the Military Industry, in 1936, fought in Spain. In 1940 Goryainov served Armory in the Moscow technical school of the NKVD and was actively engaged in scientific activities. From 1944 to 1946. Major-General MF Goryainov led this school, then worked in the universities of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR.

Mammoth rifle designed in 1936. It used the rifles of the series: the barrel of the rifle obr.1891, at the store on ABC-36. USM striker type with the "back" sear. The chamber has grooves Revell, facilitating the extraction of the sleeve and reduce the probability of its transverse rupture. Weight 3.7kg rifle. Designer rifle Michael A. Mamontov (06.11.1906 - 07.18.1993) is well known in the circles of Tula weapons, primarily as a scientific founder of Tula armory school. A graduate of the Military Mechanical Institute in 1931, in 1931-1937. He worked in the Tula Design Bureau (CDB-14) for the post of Design Engineer to Chief Engineer - Deputy Chief of the PCB. In 1937, MA Mamontov was appointed head of the newly formed Department «Designing of automatic weapons" Tula Polytechnic Institute, where he worked for almost 56 years, becoming a doctor of technical sciences, professor, author of numerous works on the theory and calculation of gas-dynamic devices of small arms. The device should be mechanisms for automatic rifles in more detail. They are based on the general principle - driving member (bolt carrier) is driven by the bottom of the sleeve is displaced in the chamber during the shot within the mirror gap. Essentially, such a system does not differ from conventional gas outlet side of the engine, except that the role it plays in the piston sleeve itself. Both rifles grip shutter to the receiver is carried laterally sliding wedge, but the design of the mechanisms driving the wedge is different. The rifle Goryainova movement of the sleeve is passed through the slide frame structurally united with her pusher passing through the channel in the valve body. On the sides of the frame are beveled slots, which include projections of the wedge. When locking the wedge moves downward. Working stroke of the bolt under the liner is very small - only 0.3 mm, then it moves on inertia about 3 mm. During this time the bullet time to leave the bore after which the frame is attached to the wedge and lifts it, realizing unlocking. The rifle Mammoth locking wedge is driven by two projections on the massive striker, which is actually a slide frame. The movement of the sleeve is transmitted through the drummer to wear on the front end of the sleeve, the front end of which is the bottom of the cup is pressed. Upon reaching the moving parts of the extreme forward position the valve body is stopped and the drummer to keep moving forward, it pushes the locking wedge in the left channel of the receiver, producing a lock. At the end of its stroke bush hammer moves forward, pushes it to the liner and cap skewers - there shot. When fired, the sleeve is shifted back and pushes the sleeve, which passed under the sleeve of 0.5 mm, knock back the hammer, and he passed by inertia 19 mm, pushes a wedge from the groove box, unlocking the bore.

Опытные винтовки Горяинова и Мамонтова (СССР. 1936 год)

Both rifles shift sleeve activates only the locking mechanism, and the main part of the energy for recharging cycle moving parts obtained at the expense of action of residual pressure in the bore on the bottom of the sleeve. Thus, the barrel engine, in the form in which it is implemented in rifles Goryainova Mammoth and is not in the full sense engine automation. Its design is aimed at the implementation of unlocking the barrel at a time when the pressure in it drops to a value at which it can be used to actuate the moving parts without the risk of breakage of the sleeve to receive a cross. According to the existing classification, this weapon is a system of mixed type (for unlocking and reloading using different principles of action), although some improvements can be made the principle of the barrel full automation engine. Documentary evidence of the test results of rifles could not be found, but, judging by the fact that the development of this topic is not received, it can be argued that the principle of automatic described did not meet expectations of designers and they have stopped working on it.

Current knowledge about the dynamics of the automatic weapon allows accurately determine the cause. In the first place the barrel engine with insufficient capacity, not allowing the locking mechanism to give enough energy to function throughout the range of operating conditions. The duty cycle of the engine takes place over a very short period of time - the bottom of the liner chooses mirror gap during about one thousandth of a second, before reaching the maximum pressure in the barrel. For comparison, a side gas operated rifle SVD engine operates within about 0.005 sec, ie 5 times longer. As is known, the magnitude of the impulse force applied to the body (in this case - to the slide frame from the liner) is directly proportional to the time during which the force acts. Thus, the barrel engine potentially much weaker side classical gas operated. To increase the engine power by extending the time it works by increasing the movement of the sleeve is almost impossible - beyond the critical value of the mirror gap (for rifle cartridge about 0.45 mm) it takes a cross break. And completely eliminate it can not be even due to the introduction of grooves Revelli in the chamber, which has proven experience in operating a rifle SVT. In principle it is possible to increase the supply of energy bolt, increasing its weight. But then it becomes probable lag unlocking mechanism, in which the residual pressure in the bore will be insufficient for actuating the moving parts.

In this case, you can use the momentum of the frame, but it will lead to an increase in size and weight of the weapon and the loss of benefits for which this engine was created ... In addition, it does not give a very abrupt elimination of the engine and its associated shocks links of the locking mechanism, their overload and breakage. And most importantly - the barrel engine has almost fatal flaw in the form of unstable operation, which depends on a number of parameters of weapons and ammunition. For example, the stroke of the bolt under the action of the sleeve, and hence the engine power depends on the size of the gap mirror, which in turn depends on the dimensional tolerances of the sleeve (y rifle cartridge - the thickness of the flange). This parameter varies in a certain admission - from rifle cartridge to 0.13 mm, ie 8%. The motor parameters are very sensitive to stress extraction, and therefore the accuracy of manufacture and the surface of the chamber and liner barrel temperature, presence of grease on the rubbing surfaces of details and other factors, many of which vary from shot to shot. And all this without affecting hindered operating conditions (dust, grease, etc.)! In general, the sleeve as described in the engine can provide the automation of weapons only in "indoor" conditions.

Mamontov Goryainov were not the only gunsmiths, who were attracted by the dignity of the gland engine automation. A similar, in fact, the engine only works due to the impact of the capsule on the drummer, in 1935 he developed the FV Tokarev ("Kalashnikov» №7 / 2011). But the overall results of the work of the designers were equally - ceased development of the theme, as do the samples were "buried" in museums. It suggests adding "... but the idea is forgotten forever." As it turned out - not forever. It is difficult to say whether the designer AF Baryshev familiar with the work Mamontov Goryainova and Tokarev (most likely - is not), but the automation system, developed by him at the beginning of 1960, implemented in the line of fire from the sample 5.45 30 mm and is positioned as "unparalleled", he built on the same principle. It happens quite often - people working on the same problem, with similar restrictions come to similar technical solutions independently. At the same time, we should recognize that Baryshev managed to create a largely original and perfect system, in which the barrel is a complete motor drive automatics.

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