Borchardt C-93
Country of origin

German Empire


Ludwig Loewe & Company
Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM)


Hugo Borchardt

Year(s) designed


Production began


Production ended


Number built

Ludwig Loewe & Company: Approx. 1,100
DWM: Almost 2,000

Weapon type

Semi-automatic pistol


7.65×25mm Borchardt
7.65×21mm Parabellum (test models)
9×18mm Borchardt (test models)



Overall length

279mm (11 in)

Barrel length

165mm (6.5 in)


1,160 g (41 oz)

Magazine/Cylinder capacity

8-round detachable box magazine

Cyclic rate


The Borchardt C-93 (Construktion 93), also known as the Borchardt automatic pistol, was a semi-automatic pistol designed by Hugo Borchardt in 1893. The 7.65×25mm Borchardt caliber was also designed for the weapon.


Taking inspiration from the mechanism of the Maxim machine gun, Hugo Borchardt developed an automatic pistol using the same action; in which case operating upwards rather than downwards as with the Maxim.

The Ludwig Loewe factory based in Germany took notice of Borchardt’s work and eventually hired him to put his design into production as the C-93. Loewe was interested in selling the gun to foreign nations, that even the United States had tested it. It also had the distinction of being the very first semi-automatic pistol to be described by the American press. During that time, Loewe reorganized into DWM, which asked its top salesman, Georg Luger, to promote the C-93 in both civilian and military channels.

Luger took the C-93 to the Swiss military for testing. The Swiss were impressed by the gun, as it had performed well during testing. While they were sold on the idea of an automatic pistol that was just as reliable as a revolver, the Swiss provided constructive criticism, that the pistol was expensive to produce and was unwieldy to handle, due to its almost vertical grip and weight distribution. Furthermore, its recoil was unexpectedly powerful. The Swiss asked DWM to redesign the pistol into a more compact package.

Hugo Borchardt refused to incorporate the feedback into a new design, claiming that the current design could not be further refined as it is, effectively distancing himself from future pistol development. DWM instead turned to Luger to redesign the weapon, leading the development of the iconic Luger pistol.

Design DetailsEdit

The C-93 used a toggle lock, based on the mechanism used in the Maxim gun that had been recently developed at the time. When the weapon is fired, a two-piece arm rose and flexed as the gun recoiled, allowing the breech to unlock and the release the spent casing.

The weapon is fed ammunition from a detachable eight-round box magazine that is inserted into the grip.

The C-93 was produced and sold primarily in its proprietary caliber, the 7.65×25mm Borchardt. Some test models of the weapon were chambered in 7.65×21mm Parabellum and 9×18mm Borchardt, an experimental bottlenecked cartridge that was developed in 1902.


  • The C-93 is featured in the video game Battlefield 1.
  • The C-93 is featured in the video game Call of Duty: WWII as the "Adlertag" variant of the Luger. There is also the "Der Adler" variant which combines the barrel, slide and sights of the C-93 with the grip, magazine, trigger, trigger guard and mag release of the Nambu type 14.