The Baryshev weapon family consists of a number of automatic weapons, developed by the famous Soviet small arms designer A.F. Baryshev in 1969, consisting of the AB, AVB, the closely related LCZ-B20 and the ARGB.
Anatoly Baryshev started working on his prototypes by himself in 1962. The idea was to make weapons, which would have had much less recoil than existing weapons, and with less recoil would come increased accuracy for a weapon. In 1969, he was awarded a patent for his own locking bolt design.
Operational development of the weapons at an industrial level demanded considerable time: testing of the weapons only started in the 1980s; the KGB, GRU and armed forces tested the weapons.
Unlike the military, which were already quite satisfied with their current arsenal, representatives of the KGB called for the speedy adoption of the weapons, because of their superiority over their Soviet and Western counterparts. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, these plans never came to fruition.
Anatoly Baryshev decided to find support abroad to continue his work. He signed a contract with Czech company LCZ-Group, which received prototypes of his weapons, as well as his newly designed 9mm pistol. However, LCZ breached the contract between LCZ and Baryshev by showing off Baryshev's own weapons at the IDET-95 fair under their own name, without any mention of Baryshev's name, and even going as far as to trying to sell these products to Western countries.
Eventually, the contract between the two parties was terminated. LCZ returned the prototypes to Baryshev, but up until this day, they have yet to be adopted by any military branch or service in Russia.
The AB series, consisting of the AB-5.45 and AB-7.62, are assault rifles, which chamber the 5.45×39mm and 7.62×39mm round respectively. The AVB is a battle rifle, chambered for the 7.62×54mmR round. The LCZ-B20 is a modification of the AVB to fire the more common 7.62×51mm NATO bullet. The ARGB is an automatic grenade launcher which held 5 30×29mmB grenades. The weapons use a delayed blowback action, which would be more common on submachine guns and machine guns than it would be on an assault rifle or battle rifle. The shot is made when the bolt opens.
The moving parts of the weapons' action are normally locked back; on pulling the trigger, the locking assembly begins to move forward under the pressure of the return spring, loading a cartridge into the weapon.
When the bolt slams forward, the locking lever locks the bolt, strikes the hammer which comes forward and hits the firing pin to fire a shot.
The bottom part of the bolt sleeve rests on the sear, lifts the hammer and the bolt returns to its original position.
Baryshev's AB have an advantage over the ubiquitous AK and AKMs, where they are lighter and easier to use. Baryshev's weapons lack any form of gas-tube; a carrying handle is fixed to the weapon where the gas tube would usually be. Three-position safety-fire mode selector allows single and full-automatic bursts. The buttstock folds to the left side of the weapon. A silencer and grenade launcher can be attached.
The AVB-7.62 can either have a plastic forearm or a foldable bipod. It has a significant advantage over standard 7.62×54mmR weapons like the Dragunov SVD. The AVB can shoot bursts at distances of 200 meters very accurately, making it a unique weapon. A trained shooter is capable of firing bursts of 10 rounds (magazine capacity) where the shots all hit a human-size target located at a distance of 250 metres.
The disadvantages of the AVB include a small rifle magazine capacity and the construction of the muzzle device, leading to a loud muzzle report and very bright muzzle flash, unmasking the shooter.
The whole system is built on a modular principle, which reduces manufacturing and maintenance costs. The disadvantages of the system arising from the use in the construction the rear sear. Single shot dispersion is greater than that of arms with the front sear, and weapon is sensitive to the contamination.