In 1964, a draft tactical and technical requirements for small-caliber lightweight gun. Work on small-caliber ammunition were already under the leadership of a group of V.M.Sabelnikova L.I.Bulavskoy, B.V.Semina, M.E.Fёdorova, P.F.Sazonova et al. Perestvolennogo tests in the experimental procedure showed the possibility of AKM create a small-caliber machine-based system had a Kalashnikov. In 1966 GRAU (Grau) issued tactical and technical requirements for the development of the new machine caliber 5.60 mm.
It refers to the caliber cartridge maloimpulsnogo on the bottom of grooves, but it is adopted in our country by measuring the caliber rifling fields obtained 5,45 mm. Decrease in caliber 7.62 to 5.45 mm and weight reduction gave cartridge (1.5 times), half the ratio between the mass of the bullet and powder charge compared with a cartridge 7,62x39. This dramatically increases the initial speed of the bullet flight path became more-trajectory, reduces the time of flight to the target and the demolition of a side wind, reduced recoil momentum carried ammunition can be increased without increasing the total weight calculations soldier. That is, it was not just about improving the accuracy of fire, and an overall increase combat effectiveness complex "patron-arms."
In the design department of the Kalashnikov is considering several options for small-caliber machine Mikhail Kalashnikov and decided to create a small-caliber A.D.Kryakushin machine based on the AKM with the broadest possible unification of parts and assemblies (automatic 40-P, 720-P, A-017) . The work was done under the copyright Kryakushina group leadership Kalashnikov.
Already in 1968 at the trial were presented automatic systems P.A.Tkachёva, A.S.Konstantinova, A.I.Shilina, Yu.M.Sokolova, Yu.K.Aleksandrova, Kalashnikov. Curiously, the machines compete with the new Kalashnikov (Alexandrov - Nesterov, Deryagina - Tkachev, Shilin, a group of designers TSNIITOCHMASH) had circuit locking the barrel rotating bolt on type of AK. Note also that although the initial requirements expected decrease in weight of 2.5 kg to the machine, to achieve this without degrading other performance in any of the test samples failed.
Experienced a Kalashnikov 1970 Experienced a Kalashnikov 1970 During the work on the 5.45 mm machine gun for the competition were presented machines of different systems. Maloimpulsnogo cartridge makes effective use of automation system on the basis of return delayed blowback. When delayed blowback unlocking bore several delayed slowing bolt recoil, although rigid connection with the barrel bolt is missing. Later (as compared blowback) unlocking the bore of the barrel is combined with the immobility, the possibility to unload it from the series loads. Using a delayed blowback would simplify the system, reduce the mass of small-caliber automatic, while improving accuracy.
Experienced a Kalashnikov 1968 As presented here, the experimental Kalashnikov submachine gun in 1970 slowing reached redistribution of energy and speed of movement between the parts of a complex gate with a special insert in the rotary gate. Turning insert according to the rule of the lever gives more massive acceleration of the bolt, thereby inhibiting an easy part, directly locking bore. To improve the accuracy of the machine also has a muzzle brake compensator reactive action. Changed and forearm.
In the Kalashnikov submachine gun in 1970 failed to provide the required reliability of automation. Generally, in those years with delayed blowback system without a hard locking the barrel does not inspire confidence from the military - had already been rejected by the 7.62-mm machine gun GA Korobov delayed blowback. Nevertheless, these systems deal with other designers, including A.F.Barysheva, A.S.Konstantinova.
With advances in technology and increasing the accuracy of serial production increased and the feasibility of the scheme, and interest in systems with delayed blowback increased quarter-century later.
The performance characteristics of a Kalashnikov 40-P
- Chuck - 5,45x39 (later - obr.1974 city)
- Weight with empty Patronova without bayonet - 3.55 kg
- Overall length - 900 mm
- Barrel length - 415 mm
- Effective range - 1000 m
- Magazine capacity - 30 rounds
The performance characteristics of the Kalashnikov assault rifle in 1970
- Chuck - 5,45x39 (obr.1974 city)
- Weight without magazine - 2.8 kg
- Overall length - 945 mm
- The length of the barrel with muzzle brake compensator - 475 mm
- The length of the sighting - 365 mm
- Magazine capacity - 30 rounds